Facebook IPO将使CEO扎克伯格身价达187亿美元

北京时间5月4日凌晨消息,Facebook周四向美国证券交易委员会(SEC)提交的S-1文件更新,计划以每股28美元到35美元的价格IPO(首次公开招股)发行1.8亿股股票。

文件称,作为这项IPO交易的部分内容,卖方股东还将额外发售1.574亿股股票。

根据IPO定价区间的上限计算,Facebook将可通过这项交易筹集136亿美元资金。按照IPO定价区间,Facebook市值介于770亿至960亿美元之间。

这一定价区间将令Facebook成为美国网络公司在IPO时估值最高的一家公司,超过谷歌2004年的230亿美元。此外,Facebook的估值还将因此达到略低于亚马逊市值的水平,超出惠普等其他的科技行业巨头。

此前曾有消息人士称,Facebook预计将以最高达到1000亿美元的估值IPO上市。从目前来看,Facebook很可能会在大约两周后确定最终IPO定价,随后开始在纳斯达克市场上进行交易,股票代码为“FB”。消息人士透露,Facebook计划从下周一开始进行IPO路演。

公司通常会在首次发布IPO定价区间以后对其定价信息作出调整,这意味着Facebook股价可能会在未来几天中上涨,具体则要视投资银行在路演中向机构投资者展示这项交易时将可看到什么样的需求。摩根士丹利、摩根大通和高盛集团是Facebook IPO交易的主承销商。

投资者或受损

这一计划中的IPO定价区间处于部分投资者此前预期的低端。在非上市股权交易市场SharesPost上,Facebook上一次结算的股价为44美元以上。业界人士指出,如果Facebook最终按照定价区间的下限来IPO上市,那么对科技价值基金Firsthand Capital首席投资官凯文·兰迪斯(Kevin Landis)等投资者来说将是个严重打击。兰迪斯过去一年时间里以每股31美元到32美元的价格在二级市场上买入了Facebook的股票,并且承诺在IPO以后的六个月时间里不会出售其股票。

兰迪斯称:“此前我曾感到过吃惊,而如果Facebook最终以定价区间的下限IPO上市,那么我将再次感到吃惊。”但兰迪斯同时表示,现在他还不太感到担心,其部分原因是定价区间的下限可能只是为刺激投资者对IPO交易的激动情绪而推出的一种策略。

对硅谷来说,Facebook的IPO交易是一个具有“分水岭”意义的时刻,原因是新一代的互联网IPO交易正在对其形成冲击。但即使是Groupon和Zynga的上市已经带来了互联网公司IPO的繁荣景象,Facebook的IPO交易也仍旧是鹤立鸡群。自2004年成立以来,Facebook的用户人数已经超过了9亿人,而且成为了奥斯卡获奖影片《社交网络》(The Social Network)的主题。

Facebook在很大程度上类似于20世纪90年代中期IPO上市的互联网浏览器公司网景,因为网景激发了一系列的其他网络业务,而Facebook也带来了许多基于其平台的新创业公司,其中包括Zynga这样的社交游戏公司,也包括象图片分享社交网站Pinterest这样的公司。

财务数据

此外,Facebook的覆盖范围也是史无前例的。这家由马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)及其哈佛大学的一些好友共同创立的公司的用户人数正在迅速接近10亿人,而且正在继续吸引来自于各种人口统计学类别和各个国际市场的用户。据悉,Facebook目前正试图打入敏感但却规模庞大的中国互联网市场。

但是,Facebook最近公布的部分财务信息令市场对即将来临的IPO交易的热情受到了抑制。与其他许多最近上市的网络公司不同的是,Facebook实现了盈利;但据Facebook最近发布的文件显示,该公司第一季度盈利和销售额同比均告下滑。

文件表明,Facebook第一季度销售额为10.6亿美元,同比下滑6%;净利润为2.05亿美元,同比大跌32%。在2011财年,Facebook净利润为10亿美元,销售额为37亿美元;而在2008年,Facebook净亏损5.6万美元,销售额还只有2.72亿美元。

并购交易

Facebook还在最近开始进行并购交易,以10亿美元的现金加股票价格收购了图片社交分享平台Instagram,并同意以5.5亿美元的价格从微软收购一批专利。

研究公司IPOBoutique.com执行总监斯科特·斯威特(Scott Sweet)称,Facebook IPO的吸引力已经变得十分明晰,原因是就连他的父母都已开始代表佛罗里达州退休社区的邻居问及此事。他指出:“他们在退休社区中的朋友并不熟悉IPO,而且也没有Facebook账号,但却很有兴趣购买Facebook的股票。”

这种投资者需求意味着,很少有投资者会认为Facebook的IPO定价区间会象2004年的谷歌那样发生重大变动。佛罗里达州立大学教授杰·里特尔(Jay Ritter)指出,谷歌最初将IPO定价区间定为每股108美元到135美元,随后降至每股85美元到95美元,最后以每股85美元的价格IPO上市。时至今日,谷歌股价超过了600美元。

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